It is native to parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [21] It also inhabits moist savanna and lowland forests. [23] Early neurological signs that indicate severe envenomation include a metallic taste, drooping eyelids (ptosis) and gradual symptoms of bulbar palsy. [49], This article is about a species of venomous snake. For other uses, see. Despite its name, the snake is not black. [42] The most toxic components are the alpha-neurotoxins,[43] which bind nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and hence block the action of acetylcholine at the postsynaptic membrane and cause neuromuscular blockade and hence paralysis. [32][33] The mechanism in both mammals is thought to be that their muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors do not bind snake alpha-neurotoxins. [13] The size of the black mamba and its ability to raise its head a large distance from the ground enables it to launch as much as 40% of its body length upwards, so mamba bites to humans can occur on the upper body. Instead, it ranges in colour from gray to dark brown, with a lighter underside. Premium Membership is now 50% off! It is capable of striking at considerable range and may deliver a series of bites in rapid succession. Snakes of Medical Importance include those with highly dangerous venom resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality, or those that are common agents in snakebite. [29][30][31] The similarly predatory honey badger also has some resistance to mamba venom. [47] A polyvalent antivenom produced by the South African Institute for Medical Research is used to treat black mamba bites,[48] and a new antivenom was being developed by the Universidad de Costa Rica's Instituto Clodomiro Picado. [13][15][16], During the threat display, any sudden movement by the intruder may provoke the snake into performing a series of rapid strikes, leading to severe envenomation. [6] In Tanzania, a local Ngindo name is ndemalunyayo ("grass-cutter") because it supposedly clips grass. Specimens of 4.3 to 4.5 m (14 ft 1 in to 14 ft 9 in) have been reported. JUST WATCHED 'The Black Mamba… Black mambas were confirmed in 15 cases, of which 2 died. Intromission may last longer than two hours and the pair remain motionless apart from occasional spasms from the male. Brown snake eagles are verified predators of adult black mambas, of up to at least 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in). [13][15] The black mamba is recorded to live up to 11 years and may live longer. A mamba-specific antivenom was introduced in 1962, followed by a fully polyvalent antivenom in 1971. [21] It is rated as a species of least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of endangered species, based on its huge range across sub-Saharan Africa and no documented decline. [1][15][21] The black mamba's distribution in parts of West Africa has been disputed. [15] The species' reputed speed has also been exaggerated; it cannot move more quickly than 20 km/h (12 mph). [10][13] It is the second-longest venomous snake species, exceeded in length only by the king cobra. It is diurnal and is known to prey on birds and small mammals. [13], The black mamba inhabits a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa; its range includes Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Swaziland, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, and Angola. In 1954, the black mamba was recorded in the Dakar region of Senegal. Of these 75 cases, 63 had symptoms of systemic envenomation and 21 died. On the ground, it moves with its head and neck raised, and typically uses termite mounds, abandoned burrows, rock crevices and tree cracks as shelter. The black mamba typically lays 6 to 20 eggs. [38] The peak period for deaths is the species' breeding season from September to February, during which black mambas are most irritable. [44] Tetanus toxoid is sometimes administered, though the main treatment is the administration of the appropriate antivenom. [43] The venom is composed of two main families of toxic agents, dendrotoxins (I and K) and (at a slightly lower proportion) three-finger toxins. The snake's potent digestive system has been recorded to fully digest prey in eight to ten hours. [43], The venom is predominantly neurotoxic, and symptoms often become apparent within ten minutes. [13] When it perceives a threat, it retreats into brush or a hole. Over suitable surfaces, it can move at speeds up to 16 km/h (10 mph) for short distances. Its venom is primarily composed of neurotoxins that often induce symptoms within ten minutes, and is frequently fatal unless antivenom is administered. There is research interest in their analgesic potential. [24] They generally prefer warm-blooded prey but will also consume other snakes. In a threat display, the black mamba usually opens its inky-black mouth, spreads its narrow neck-flap and sometimes hisses. Black mamba, (Dendroaspis polylepis), species of mamba snake known for its large size, quickness, and extremely potent venom. [11], The black mamba is a long, slender, cylindrical snake. [8] This was subsequently regarded as a subspecies[3] and is no longer held to be distinct. The male will then coil itself around the posterior end of the female and align its tail ventrolaterally with the female's. Die Black Mamba [ˌblækˈmæmbə] (englisch für „Schwarze Mamba“) ist eine Achterbahn im Themenbereich Deep in Africa [ˈdiːp ɪn ˈæfɹɪkə] (englisch für „Tief in Afrika“) des Phantasialands in Brühl.Sie gehört zu den teuersten Achterbahn-Projekten … The average black mamba is 2–2.5 metres (6.6–8.2 feet) long, with a maximum length of 4.3 metres (14 feet). First formally described by Albert Günther in 1864, it is the second-longest venomous snake after the king cobra; mature specimens generally exceed 2 m (6 ft 7 in) and commonly grow to 3 m (9 ft 10 in). The Black Mamba is considered to be the longest venomous of all snakes found around Africa. Die Höchstgeschwindigkeit, die die Pfeile dabei erreichen beträgt 316 Km/h. [17] Nonetheless, anecdotes have indicated that large black mambas may at times infrequently attack large prey such as rock hyrax or dassies, and in some tribal languages, its name even means "dassie catcher". Despite its name, the snake is not black. Although it has an aggressive reputation, the black mamba is generally shy and nervous, and it will use its incredible speed to escape threats. [14] The black mamba is a proteroglyphous (front-fanged) snake, with fangs up to 6.5 mm (0.26 in) in length,[15] located at the front of the maxilla. [10], The black mamba is oviparous; the female lays a clutch of 6–17 eggs. The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is a species of highly venomous snake belonging to the family Elapidae.


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